Togo (1979-1991)


In 1979, the national anthem was replaced with one written collectively by members of the ruling party Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais. (The anthem might also have been the anthem of the party as well.) The anthem was changed back to the original one in the early 1990s, around the same time that democratic reforms were put in place under Western pressure and a new constitution permitted opposition parties.