Romania

 

Written during the 1848 revolution by Andrei Mureşianu and set to the music of Anton Pann by Gheorghe Ucenescu and originally titled “Un răsunet” (An Echo), the poem’s theme of revolution, liberty, and patriotism, quickly became popular with Romanians, especially in subsequent national struggles, earning the song the nickname of the “Romanian Marseillaise“. It was first used as a national anthem by the short-lived Moldavian Democratic Republic in 1917-1918 (and was the first anthem in use by independent Moldova from 1991-1994) and was long regarded as an unofficial Romanian anthem. It was heard frequently during the protests against the communist government in late 1989 and was officially confirmed as the national anthem in the spring of 1990. The original work has eleven verses, but only four (verses 1, 2, 4, and 11) are usually performed as the official lyrics (although on special occasions, such as National Anthem Day (July 29, the anniversary of its first performance in 1848), the full lyrics can sometimes be heard).