After independence in 1990, Namibia held a contest for a new national anthem. The winner of the contest was Axali Doeseb, the director of a Kalahari traditional music group. The anthem was performed for the first time at the first anniversary of independence. During the year before “Namibia, Land of the Brave” was adopted, the popular African song, “Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrika” was used as the national anthem.