Iraq (1981-2003)


“Land of Two Rivers” refers to the Tigris and Euphrates, the country’s two main rivers, and where the capital, Baghdad, is situated. The anthem was adopted in 1981 by then-president Saddam Hussein, the third verse of the anthem praises his party. (Interestingly, this is Iraq’s first anthem since first adopting an anthem over 55 years previously, that has words!)