Brazil’s anthem was first performed in 1831, shortly after Brazil’s first emperor abdicated. During the imperial period (1822-1889) and for the first few years of the republican period thereafter, the anthem was performed without words, no suitable words having been popular with the people. After becoming a republic in 1889, it was often suggested among the republican groups in the country that a new anthem should be adopted, as the current anthem was used during the imperial era. A new anthem was adopted that year, but was not well-recieved by the population, and the anthem of the Empire was declared official on January 20, 1890. The anthem was still without official words, and each state started adopting their own words to the anthem. In 1906, it was brought forward that lyrics for the anthem should be written, and in 1909 a poem by Joaquim Osório Duque Estrada was composed. However it wasn’t until 1922, for the 100th anniversary of independence, that Osório Duque Estrada’s poem was adopted, with several changes to the text.
Brazil, like many other “federalist” nations, have states that have their own anthems as well.
Special thanks to: Pedro Aguiar and Nelson Brito Moreira for some of this information, and Ricardo Amigo for a slight correction in the translation.