In 2004, the new Afghan constitution stated that a new national anthem for the country, requested by the post-Taliban government to signal a new era for Afghanistan, must be written in Pashto and contain the phrase “Allahu Akbar” (God is Great), and mention the names of the ethnic groups in Afghanistan. The winning composition was created by two Afghans living outside the country due to the war.

There has been some criticism of the anthem due to the above stated conditions of composition, that the Pashto requirement places less importance on the other languages spoken in the country; that the phrase “Allahu Akbar” should not be used in the anthem, as it is a sacred phrase in Islam and should not be set to music; and the ethnic groups mentioned in the anthem still do not represent the entire spectrum of nationalities in the country.